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"Sophisticated thermal manikins are used worldwide in a vast array of government, industrial, and academic research settings to evaluate the environmental and occupational protective capabilities of clothing, footwear and handwear.
However, prior to 1941, there was no method available for U.S. military clothing developers to accurately assess thermal heat transfer through protective clothing ensembles.
During the 1930's, 1 dimensional guarded-ring flat plates and 3 dimensional heated cylinders were commonly used to measure thermal resistance of single or multiple textile layers.
The development of the clo unit in 1941 by Gagge, Burton, and Bazett was an important advancement in clothing science as it provided for a standard measure of the thermal insulation of clothing. At that time, 1 clo equaled the insulation provided by a typical business suit. 2 clo could be said
to provide twice the protection of a business suit, etc.. This concept of insulation was intentionally developed to be understood by non-scientists and was the first to establish a relationship between man, his clothing and the environment. " Learn more
at Measurement Technology NW...