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Thermal Manikins first published in HPAC Canada

Thermal Comfort

Mark II Thermal Comfort Assessment Cart  
The College of Environmental Design, U of C Berkeley, (c) Copywrite 2006 UC Regents,
All Rights Reserved

The Mark II cart was designed in late 1990 by Professor Charles C. Benton and graduate student David Lehrer. Construction began in 1990 and was completed by master craftsman Robert Marcial, then an undergraduate student at Berkeley. Research Associate Fred Bauman managed the specification and procurement of measurement components. Ph. D. student Marc Fountain worked with Benton on modification of the data acquisition components and programming of the system. The cart became operational in April 1991 and has performed well ever since.
Learn more at The College of Environmental Design.



Thermal Manikins
We assembled this content as a short presentation on the use of modern instrumentation to study human comfort and to communicate to the housing industry that physiological comfort is measurable, specifiable and achievable.

We are grateful to U of C Berkeley, College of Environmental Design, Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Measurement Technology NW for providing graphics and text for this page. For further studies please visit their respective sites.

The Use of Thermal Manikins in Comfort Research


Historical Overview (excerpt)

(c) Copywrite 2006 Measurement Technology NW. .

"Sophisticated thermal manikins are used worldwide in a vast array of government, industrial, and academic research settings to evaluate the environmental and occupational protective capabilities of clothing, footwear and handwear.

However, prior to 1941, there was no method available for U.S. military clothing developers to accurately assess thermal heat transfer through protective clothing ensembles.

During the 1930's, 1 dimensional guarded-ring flat plates and 3 dimensional heated cylinders were commonly used to measure thermal resistance of single or multiple textile layers.

The development of the clo unit in 1941 by Gagge, Burton, and Bazett was an important advancement in clothing science as it provided for a standard measure of the thermal insulation of clothing. At that time, 1 clo equaled the insulation provided by a typical business suit. 2 clo could be said to provide twice the protection of a business suit, etc.. This concept of insulation was intentionally developed to be understood by non-scientists and was the first to establish a relationship between man, his clothing and the environment. " Learn more at Measurement Technology NW...

The Use of Modern Manikins

Excerpt, "ADAM" is the world's most advanced thermal comfort manikin and represents a true leap in technology for thermal manikins. Developed for the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), "ADAM" is used to evaluate the highly non-uniform and transient environments in vehicles. "ADAM" is subdivided into 126 individual sweating zones for a highly accurate prediction of occupant sensation and comfort. The manikin mimics human responses such as sweating and breathing with incredible accuracy, and its high spatial resolution and rapid response to environmental changes allow it to respond realistically to transient, non-uniform inputs. "ADAM" has all electronics within the manikin body cavity, including batteries and a wireless transceiver for true cordless operation of all manikin systems."
Learn more at National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Be sure to read Three Design Rules for Aging Boomers

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